Unmanned aerial vehicle
An unmanned aerial vehicle, commonly known as a drone, is a plane without a human pilot on board. UAVs are a component of an unmanned aircraft system; They include a UAV, a ground controller and a communication system between the two.
The flight of unmanned aerial vehicles can operate with varying degrees of autonomy: either under remote control by a human operator or autonomously by on-board computers.
Compared to manned aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles were originally used for missions that were too “boring, dirty, or dangerous” for humans. Although they originated mainly in military applications, their use is rapidly expanding to commercial, scientific, recreational, agricultural and other applications, such as surveillance, peacekeeping and surveillance, product deliveries, aerial photography, agriculture, contraband and Drone racing
Civil unmanned aerial vehicles now far outperform military unmanned aerial vehicles, with estimates of more than one million sold for 2015, so they can be seen as an early commercial application of autonomous things, which must be followed by autonomous cars and domestic robots.
Multiple terms are used for unmanned aerial vehicles, which generally refer to the same concept.
The term drone, more widely used by the public, was coined in reference to the first objective aircraft used remotely for the practice of firing the weapons of a battleship, and the term was used for the first time with the Fairey Queen of the 1920s and the De Havilland Queen Bee’s objective of 1930 aircraft. These two were followed in service by Airspeed Queen Wasp and Miles Queen Martinet with the same name, before being replaced by GAF Jindivik.
The term unmanned aircraft system was adopted by the United States Department of Defense and the United States Federal Aviation Administration in 2005 in accordance with its Road Map of the Unmanned Aircraft System 2005-2030.
The International Civil Aviation Organization and the British Civil Aviation Authority adopted this term, also used in the road map of the European Joint Undertaking for 2020.
This term emphasizes the importance of the elements other than the airplane. Includes elements such as ground control stations, data links and other support equipment. A similar term is an unmanned vehicle system, remotely piloted aerial vehicle, remotely piloted aircraft system. Many similar terms are in use.
A UAV is defined as a “motorized air vehicle that does not transport a human operator, uses aerodynamic forces to provide lift of the vehicle, can fly autonomously or be remotely piloted, can be expendable or recoverable and can carry a lethal payload or not lethal. ”
Therefore, missiles are not considered unmanned aerial vehicles because the vehicle itself is a weapon that is not reused, although it is also unmanned and, in some cases, remotely guided.