Nanotechnology is the manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular and supramolecular scale. The oldest and most widespread description of nanotechnology referred to the particular technological goal of precisely manipulating atoms and molecules for the manufacture of macroscale products, also called molecular nanotechnology.
A more generalized description of nanotechnology was subsequently established by the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which defines nanotechnology as the manipulation of matter with at least one size dimension of 1 to 100 nanometers.
This definition reflects the fact that quantum mechanical effects are important at this scale of quantum domains, so the definition went from a particular technological goal to a category of research that includes all types of research and technologies that deal with the properties specials that occur below the given size threshold.
Therefore, it is common to see the plural form “nanotechnologies”, as well as the “nanoscale technologies” to refer to the wide range of research and applications whose common feature is size. Due to the variety of potential applications, governments have invested billions of dollars in nanotechnology research.
Until 2012, the United States has invested $ 3.7 billion using its National Nanotechnology Initiative, the European Union has invested $ 1.2 billion, and Japan has invested $ 750 million.
Nanotechnology as defined by size is naturally very broad, including fields of science as diverse as surface sciences, organic chemistry, molecular biology, semiconductor physics, energy storage, microfabrication, molecular engineering, etc.
The investigations and associated applications are equally diverse, from extensions of the physics of conventional devices to completely new approaches based on molecular self-assembly, from the development of new materials with dimensions in the nanometric scale to the direct control of matter in the atomic scale .
Scientists are currently debating the future implications of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology can create many new materials and devices with a wide range of applications, such as nanomedicine, nanoelectronics, energy production of biomaterials and consumer products.
On the other hand, nanotechnology poses many of the same problems as any new technology, including concerns about the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials, and their potential effects on the global economy, as well as speculation about various apocalyptic scenarios. These concerns have led to a debate between advocacy groups and governments about whether the special regulation of nanotechnology is guaranteed.
Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular level. This covers the current work and the concepts that are more advanced. In its original sense, nanotechnology refers to the projected capacity to construct items from the bottom up, using techniques and tools that are developed today to make complete high-performance products.