Domestic technology is the incorporation of applied science to the home. There are many aspects of domestic technology. On one level, there are appliances, home automation and other devices commonly used in the home, such as clothes dryers and washing machines. These things are detailed below.
On another level, domestic technology recognizes the use of applied science to build homes to achieve a particular goal, such as energy efficiency or self-sufficiency.
For more information, read about self-sufficient homes. It has been argued that domestic technology has led to a decrease in the time that people devote to domestic work, although the factual basis of this claim is in dispute. Currently, many technologies are routinely used in modern homes, detailed below.
Since the appearance of Vanek’s pioneering article in 1974, there has been a controversy over whether ‘labor-saving’ appliances really save work time. Vanek argued that time spent on domestic chores had barely changed since 1926, despite the spread of virtually all household appliances known during this period. Gershuny and Robinson challenge Vanek’s “proof of domestic work” thesis, arguing that, between 1965 and 1985, domestic technology has significantly reduced the weekly hours of routine domestic work for women.
Although there is a lot of talk about each other, none of the protagonists of this dispute has direct data on which households have or do not have appliances. Instead, they all rely on the passing of the years as a substitute for home appliance ownership, since a larger proportion of contemporary households now own appliances.
The 1997 Australian Time Use Survey is rare among official surveys, as it simultaneously provides detailed information on time spent on household chores and an inventory of household appliances. The analysis of these data shows that domestic technology seldom reduces the unpaid work time of women and, even paradoxically, produces some increases in domestic work. The division of domestic work by gender remains remarkably resistant to technological innovation.
The technological revolution in the production of durable goods in the home undoubtedly influences the participation of women in the labor force in most of the world’s economies. Studies of developed economies show contradictory views on the effect of domestic technology on the female workforce.
The unanswered question in the literature remains whether the ownership of domestic technologies could lead women to decrease or increase the time allocated to family production, thus driving women into the workforce or inducing them to a greater preference for leisure . Therefore, this paper empirically examines the effect of ownership of modern domestic technology, such as the washing machine, the gas stove and the refrigerators, on the participation of the female workforce in a context of developing economy. The primary data obtained through questionnaires was used in this study.