Artificial intelligence, sometimes called artificial intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence shown by humans and other animals.
In computer science, AI research is defined as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes measures that maximize its chances of achieving its objectives successfully. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is applied when a machine imitates “cognitive” functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as “learning” and “solving problems.”
The scope of AI is controversial: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered to require “intelligence” are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, which leads to the occurrence, ” AI is what has not been done yet “For example, optical character recognition is often excluded from” artificial intelligence “, becoming a routine technology.
Capabilities generally classified as AI as of 2017 include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic gaming systems, autonomous cars, intelligent routing in the content distribution network and military simulations.
Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in subsequent years has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and loss of funds, followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. . For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often do not communicate with each other.
These subfields are based on technical considerations, such as particular objectives, the use of particular tools or deep philosophical differences. The subfields have also been based on social factors.
The traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.
General intelligence is one of the long-term goals of the field. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. Many AI tools are used, including versions of mathematical search and optimization, artificial neural networks and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The field of AI is based on computer science, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy and many others.
The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence “can be described so accurately that a machine can be made to simulate it.” This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human intelligence, themes that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since ancient times. Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses incessantly. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment.